Tag Archives: Kebour Ghenna

Addis Ababa: When Name and Reality Don’t Match Up

Kebour Ghenna

Translate ‘Addis Ababa’ to a foreigner and her eyes glaze over at the thought of miles of beautiful parks, boulevards and streets lined up with ornamental prune trees, and pedestrian-friendly clean neighborhoods. Alas, the reality could not be further from the truth. Addis Ababa is today a dense, brutal, and crowded city, with serious deficiencies in housing, drinking water, power, sewerage, solid waste disposal, and other services. Everywhere we look, we see evidence of unthinkable inequality, deprivation and filth.

The Addis Ababa municipality office

Fifty years ago, my father likened to say ‘There is no garden in Addis Ababa… Addis is in a garden.’ I suppose with the speed of growth Addis witnessed in the past few decades, and the scarcity of means with which it could respond to it, things must have gone out of control. Yes, cities are messy, complex places to administer. But what cities can be, is smarter about how they approach the issue. Today, Addis Ababa has the exclusive opportunity to reinvent its city centre. It can not only rejuvenate itself, but also give a preview of how an African City of the 21st Century could look like and function.

These last ten years, as large amount of area is freed up right in the heart of the city, the chance to plan a completely new activity centre for the city has arisen. Unfortunately, the redevelopment so far seems to be utterly sterile. Look at Arat Kilo (my home quarter), where there was once a vibrant community, busy alleys, family owned businesses, artisan workshops, small soccer fields and more, is today being replaced by new residents, soulless new assemblage of buildings with absolutely zero character or taste. And yet, poor Arat Kilo could have been one of the tourist attraction of the city, had it been allowed to keep its mixed-use habitats, and high-density neighborhoods and was provided with sewage systems, water, electricity, roads, wi-fis and other state of the art amenities, regardless of how slummy or messy it looked.

Go further to AYAT and beyond, a featureless new quarter.
Over the past decade and a half, the nation’s developers and government officials have replicated discredited urban planning templates, importing ideas that were tested, failed and long since abandoned in places like Europe and the US.
But the most amusing development of all is the attempt by the city to create a so called financial centre between Mexico Square and the National Bank of Ethiopia – which meant for the authorities replicating the plans for the Loop in Chicago or Canary Wharf in London, or Wall Street in New York. Here the containers are mistaken for the contents. But no one goes to Mexico Square to see the buildings.

That’s not all, now check out the development around the UNECA, where monotonous hotel buildings and bunch of apartments completely masked one of the magnificent UN campuses in the world. Today that complex is almost out of sight. A repeat around the AU Commission campus may be developing.

In the whole, the wrong sort of architecture and urban planning has been favored – an approach that favors, horizontal grouping of buildings (of any kind) instead of, say, business. And what’s frightening is the lack of citizens’ engagement in policymaking and the design of public services. So, to any Addis Ababian willing to listen – before it’s too late – it’s time to claim back the essence of the new flower or the image of Addis Ababa.
Here are six modest ideas:

First, let’s decide on the kind of city we, the citizens, want to have and then start rebuilding our city the way we want it. Ideally government should provide the land and the infrastructure, but beyond that, we should be free to build what we need, neighborhood by neighborhood, each with its own main street, shops, banks, schools, hospitals, entertainment centers etc . Each complex becoming a small town, and their numbers would make up this sprawling capital. Indeed, this was how Addis was founded at the start of the 20th century, with the then aristocrats and army commanders setting up their own camps i.e. Ras Mulugeta Sefer, Dejazmach Zewedu Abba Koran, Dejach Wube are some among others.
Today, many misunderstand Addis Ababa as informal and illogical because of the dualist notion of the city as divided into polar opposites: Urban and rural, rich and poor, formal and informal, order and mess. But Ethiopian culture accepts that mess and order are inseparable: this is why Ethiopians are so tolerant of urban forms that the West would see as “irrational” or “messy” — neighborhoods develop and slowly integrate with the larger urban system on their own terms. Addis was built with no zoning rules to become a fantastically integrated mixed-use city. With some imagination, involvement, and incremental development we can still build what would be a prosperous city where the inhabitants would preserve their customs and social organization. In other words, a city with character.

Second, let’s make (not talk) Addis the greenest city of Africa, a city that builds electric light train, but also provides a new way of thinking about urban living. A city moving from a consumer society to a collaborative society; a city that has high acceptance of public transit, bicycle pathways, and pedestrian walkways; a city that can encourage and support residents to grow their own food. Utopia? Not at all! It is in fact within our ability to change, say, within a time span of twenty years. Encouraging, say, small plot or integrated farming, known as permaculture, is an initiative everyone can be involved in, and make a small difference in their community and surrounding environment, it can even create employment, lots of it, for young people. As you might imagine, for a green future in Addis Ababa, multiple actions need to be taken: from localized high-level policy frameworks, to harnessing residents’ love for nature.

Third, let’s rethink our deference to car travel (a copy paste of another value and culture) and stop crafting our landscape around automotive transport. Look at New York city, note the compactness of its development, the fertile mix of commercial and residential uses, and the availability of public transportation. All that has made automobile ownership all but unnecessary in most of New York city. So why not adopt the same vision for Addis, and promote biking, buses and modern traffic systems, as well the building of pleasant sidewalks.
Fourth, let’s stop pushing out lower wage residents and service workers out to the far-off peripheries, where opportunities are fewest, where they can barely afford to live, and where their economic conditions continues to sink. Aren’t they part of the fabric of Addis Ababa? The future of our city should not be a city of dull, boring, rich people only.

Fifth, let’s build an inclusive Addis Ababa with strong community bonds, incorporating resilience, innovations and technologies in areas such as infrastructure, governance and security. For this is a necessary first step to get political, business and civic leaders to agree on a shared vision and common agenda for joint action on the city’s economic growth and inclusion. Of course collaboration does not happen naturally, particularly in view of past experiences and the way our Kebeles work, where politics and the ruling party members dominate the discourse. Still, I think residents can come together and make Addis a hotbed of high tech and the leading startup cities in Africa. Let’s catch up Nairobi and Kigali.

Which leads me to my sincerest piece of advice: If we have any ambition for creating inclusive, resilient, green, healthy, just, smart or livable Addis Ababa, then we should, above all, effectively tackle corruption.

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ARE WE SELLING THE NATION OUT?

kebour-ghenna

Kebour Ghenna

You won’t believe this….we hardly believe it ourselves… The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has put the Ethiopian Shipping Lines (ESL) S.C. on sale (apparently for minority stake…). Is the government so short of money to run its business and service its loans that it has to look for such a short cut? Or is this a matter of “privatization” or “economic efficiency”? By the way, I read that privatization increase neither efficiency nor competition, but do lead to price increases for consumers, higher costs for government, corruption, embezzlement and the destruction of democracy.
But this is a deeper subject …let me leave it for another day.

Now, how does one explain a situation where, one good morning, the Federal Government announces the sale of one its prized assets, which has taken almost three generations to build? Should we applaud the government for this daring move? Should we be grateful for its flair. No debate, no contest, no explaining to the public what other options were considered that could have avoided the sale of this national treasure. What’s more disappointing is the fact that policymakers, in the last couple of months, have been promising to be transparent, open, and inclusive but judging from events on the ground, we have not moved an inch in that direction.

Still believe in democracy?
Many years ago, 1964 G.C to be exact, Emperor Haile Selassie’s government established the ESL with two share holders: the government (49%) and a US firm (51%). In the late sixties the government bought back the 51% of the shares (with real money, if you know what I mean) owned by the US firm. Half a century later we’re back to square one. Selling our hard earned stake, this time to a Chinese company! The Emperor would have screamed!
This is not good news. It tells us there is far more problem in the horizon than potential upside.

From where I sit the proposal to sell the ESL is outrageous. It amounts to disinheritance of future Ethiopians. National assets like the ESL are strategic investments for not just economic but security reasons as well. I don’t know about you, but I can’t bear the idea that a Chinese company may soon control the ESL, and who knows, in a not too distant future many of the country’s public assets.

Not long ago the magazine African Business reported:
“In the next five years, the company (meaning ESL) will extend the entire transport and logistics chain, which could make it the largest liner trader in Africa in the next five years. It will extensively build its competitive advantage and outreach in the oil and gas shipment to serve the international market through strategic partnerships. Existing constraints in finance and limited access to foreign credit suppliers is a challenge. However, the company’s performance report shows a positive return that will attract credit suppliers to work with the company: its strict follow-up and implementation of international rules and regulations has enabled Ethiopia to be among the very few IMO white-listed countries.”

Local news outlets have also regularly reported on the profits of the ESL. You try to make out what is going on here.

Now, I really do not have anything against the sales of assets but then it should only be those that are either not profitable or you cannot run efficiently. As I said, my heart was made heavier when I noted the absence of any debate on the issue, and the news was reported as a benign matter of fact. Who can trust a government when its institutions that are meant to ensure economic prosperity and unity through sound policies fail to do so? Isn’t it this type of behavior that triggers more chaos and panic than poor governance? Apart from the economic dimension, how can we ignore that national assets such as the ESL are instruments of unity in a country that is plural like ours? Afar, Amhara, Gambela, Oromo, Somali, Tigray, Welayta and all other groups have the consciousness that national investments unite us, and that gains or otherwise there from are nationally shared.

No doubt the proposal to sale of the ESL makes many Ethiopians uneasy. From talking to ordinary people I get the sense that the ESL deal has made many compatriots uneasy for reasons they couldn’t quite articulate.

In fact I think the uneasiness of the people has more to do with what it says about the peculiar fiscal climate in the country. How is it that in one of the fastest growing nation on earth, the government simply don’t have the cash to maintain such a strategic asset, the political will to raise such funds, or the competence to run such reasonably profitable operations? Why is Ethiopia being forced to sell off long-term cash cows for short-term cash? People sense that the Chinese buyer would take the company and move it to Shanghai, or Hong Kong. I doubt if the contract spells out in detail obligations of the buyers to invest in maintenance or to maintain jobs opportunities for Ethiopians, or to keep a lid on shipping rates.

Remember selling a public asset is a classic one-shot – a short-term measure that bolsters the balance sheet today but that can’t be repeated. While politicians focus on getting through the next few fiscal years with minimum pain, foreign Chinese companies are thinking about how to get rich off of shipping business for the next three-quarters of a century.
Of course, by selling the ESL at high prices, Ethiopia could be taking foreigners for a ride. In the eighties the Japanese famously overpaid for Rockefeller Center in New York, after all. It’s possible that the FDRE just ripped off the Chinese on this deal. But I doubt it.

Ah!… Two more questions:
Think Ethiopian Airlines and Ethiopian Electric Power and ET Telecom are safe? Think again!
And who reaps the commission from the ESL deal?
You may have the same reaction we did: This is crazy!

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